Emerging as a rich crucible of knowledge, India has etched a glorious legacy of intellectual progression that spans countless epochs. Integral to this vast academic tapestry is the science of mathematics, whose importance has been recognized and revered since the era of the ancient Vedas.
This complex discipline has been tenaciously honed and refined over millennia, with each generation meticulously preserving, enhancing, and bequeathing this priceless repository of knowledge to the succeeding generation. This relentless dedication to mastering and propagating mathematical principles delineates India’s continual role as a thriving hub of intellectual exploration and academic discourse.
Among the many mathematical contributions, Vedic mathematics stands out as a unique collection of efficient and expedient techniques for resolving mathematical arithmetic. This system is underpinned by 16 sutras or principles, each being a word formula encapsulating a natural approach to solving a broad spectrum of mathematical problems.
The inception of this remarkable technique can be credited to the esteemed scholar Shri Bharathi Krishna Tirthaji Maharaj, a luminary in the realms of Sanskrit, Mathematics, History, and Philosophy. His transformative work imbues mathematical solutions with simplicity and speed, adding a fresh dimension to the discipline and reflecting the ingenious mathematical spirit of India.
Below are the 16 Vedic Maths Sutras with brief explanations:
1. Ekadhikena Purvena (One more than the previous one): This sutra is useful for cases where the number is close to the base, like 10, 100, 1000, etc. It is mainly used in finding squares of numbers near these bases.
2. Nikhilam Navatashcaramam Dashatah (All from 9 and the last from 10): This sutra is helpful when you are subtracting a number from a large round number like 10, 100, 1000, etc.
3. Urdhva-Tiryakbhyam (Vertically and crosswise): This sutra is useful for multiplication of numbers where the multipliers are more than the number 10. It can also be applied for the multiplication of numbers close to bases (10, 100, 1000, etc).
4. Paravartya Yojayet (Transpose and adjust): This sutra is used in division. It makes any type of division simple.
5. Shunyam Saamyasamuccaye (When the sum is the same that sum is zero): This sutra is used in solving simultaneous linear equations where the coefficients of the variables are the same. The sum (or, difference) of the coefficients in the variables of these equations is zero.
6. Anurupye – Sunyamanyat (If one is in ratio, the other one is zero): Used in solving simultaneous linear equations, this sutra comes into play when the coefficients of one variable are in the same ratio to each other as the independent terms.
7. Sankalana-vyavakalanabhyam (By addition and by subtraction): This sutra is used to solve a special type of simultaneous linear equations where the coefficients of ‘x’ and ‘y’ are interchanged.
8. Purana Puranabhyam (By the completion or non-completion): When the given data is incomplete, this method helps us to find the complete data first and then solve the problem.
9. Chalana-Kalanabhyam (Differences and Similarities): This sutra is mainly used for solving the problems where differentiation is involved.
10. Yaavadunam (As much as the extend): This sutra is useful in the operations involving ‘0’. It helps in case of multiplication.
11. Vyashtisamanstih (Part and Whole): This is applied to find the product of two numbers when one number is far away from the base. It is also useful in solving complex numbers and statistics.
12. Shesanyankena Charamena (The remainders by the last digit): This one helps in finding the remainders of division problems. It’s used when we divide a number by 9.
13. Sopaantyadvayamantyam (The ultimate and twice the penultimate): Applicable when the multiplication of numbers whose last digits together make 10 and the remaining digits are identical.
14. Ekanyunena Purvena (One less than the previous one): This sutra is used for the multiplication of numbers whose last digits add up to 10 and the preceding numbers are the same.
15. Gunitasamuchyah (The product of the sum is the sum of the product): This sutra is used in solving problems related to algebra and geometry.
16. Gunakasamuchyah (The factor of the sum is the sum of the factor): This sutra can be applied in factorization and solving algebraic equations.
Remember, these are the basic ideas for each sutra, but each one can be applied to various types of calculations depending on the specific situation and needs to be practiced to get a hold of.
Learn Know About the Each Sutra in Detail:
- Vedic Math Sutra 1- Ekadhikena Purvena
- Vedic Math Sutra 2- Nikhilam Navatashcaramam Dashatah
- Vedic Math Sutra 3– Urdhava – Tiryagbyham
- Vedic Math Sutra 4- Paravartya Yojayet
- Vedic Math Sutra 5- Sūnyaṁ Samyāsamuccaya
- Vedic Math Sutra 6- Anurupye
- Vedic Math Sutra 7- Urdhava- Saṅkalana Vyavakalanābhyāṃ
- Vedic Math Sutra 8- Puranapuranabhyam
- Vedic Math Sutra 9- Chalana-Kalanabhyam
- Vedic Math Sutra 10- Yavadunam
- Vedic Math Sutra 11- Vyastisamastih
- Vedic Math Sutra 12- Sesanyankena Caramena
- Vedic Math Sutra 13– Sopantyadvayamantyam
- Vedic Math Sutra 14- Ekanyunena Purvena
- Vedi Math Sutra 15- Gunitasamuccayah
- Vedic Math Sutra 16– Gunakasamuccayah
The concept of Vedic Math is based on sixteen sutras. So, we list all sixteen sutras with their meaning and uses in the table below.
|Where to use
|By one more than the previous one
|Squaring of a number ending with 5
|Nikhilam Navatashcaramam Dashatah
|All from 9 and the last from 10
|Multiplication of numbers, which are near to base like 10, 100, 1000
|Vertically and crosswise
|It is the general formula, applicable to all cases of multiplication of two large numbers
|Transpose and adjust
|When the divisor greater than 10
|When the sum is the same that sum is zero
|If there is a common term in the equation and the sum of the equation is 0 then the common term can be equated to 0
|If one is in ratio, the other is zero
|To find out the product of two number when both are near the common base like 40, 40, etc. (multiples of powers of 10).
|By addition and by subtraction
|It is used to solve simultaneous simple equations which have the coefficient of the variables interchanged.
|By the completion or Non- completion
|Used to simplify or solve algebra problems.
|Differences and Similarities
|To find the roots of a quadratic and to factorize expressions of the 3rd, 4th, and 5th degrees.
|Whatever the extent of its deficiency
|Applicable to obtain sq. of a number close to bases of powers of 10
|Part and Whole
|Help in the factorization of the quadratic equation of types
|The remainders by the last digit
|It is to express a fraction as a decimal to all its decimal places
|The ultimate and twice the penultimate
|By one less than the previous one
|This sutra is used in case of multiplication by 9, 99…
|The product of the sum is equal to the sum of the product
|The factors of the sum are equal to the sum of the factors
|Used in the factorization of cubics, biquadratics
We have tried to summarize all the invaluable sutras of Vedic Math in the simplest way possible. We hope the table above will help you solve complex problems in seconds and assist you in speed calculations.
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Update: This article was last updated on 31st July 2023 to reflect the accuracy and up-to-date information on the page.